Polyvagal Theory, developed by Dr. Stephen W. Porges, offers a groundbreaking perspective on the autonomic nervous system’s role in regulating our emotional and physiological states. It distinguishes between two branches of the vagus nerve within the parasympathetic nervous system, proposing a hierarchical organization of our biological responses to stress and social interaction. The theory emphasizes how the vagus nerve influences our capacity for social engagement, fear responses, and the shutdown behaviors associated with life threats. The “ventral vagal system” supports social communication and self-soothing behaviors, while the “dorsal vagal system” manages our freeze or shutdown responses to extreme stress or danger. Polyvagal Theory highlights the importance of the body’s physiological state in psychological well-being and how a sense of safety is foundational for social connections and mental health. It has significant implications for understanding trauma, anxiety, and various behavioral challenges, guiding therapeutic practices toward enhancing physiological state regulation and social engagement.